There are basically three variations of the Golden Retriever — "basic" because there are also three color styles beyond the kennel standards that are not exactly varietals yet kind of exist on their own too. The formal types of Goldie are the American, the English (sometimes called the "English Cream") and the Canadian. The three non-standard colors are black, white and red.
The American Golden Retriever is the one that most people think of when this breed is mentioned. The American has a thicker coat than the other two but a more narrow body than the English, and these dogs tend to be more golden but not too dark. The English Creme, sometimes called a White Golden Retriever, is lighter and often associated with the color varietal in its nickname. Canadian Goldies are lean like the American but have a still less heavy coat like the English, and the color is lustrous golden like the American.
The other two color varietals, red and black, are not acceptable by the standards of the big kennel clubs (AKC, UKC, CKC, etc.) The "black" Goldies are actually just very dark shades of golden. The red Goldens, however, are practically red and may have a copper or deep amber hue. These dogs tend to distinctly show the long ago heritage of the Irish Setter.
If you are looking for a long-haired or short-haired Golden Retriever, there are no such styles recognized. Goldies are naturally long-haired dogs, and grooming tends to dictate the length of their coat. There is only one size, and if you are told you can get a toy, mini, micro, pocket, teacup or other small Golden Retriever, that dog is either a runt or a crossbreed.