These dogs' long, silky coats are similar in texture to human hair and will require a great deal of attention, so Afghan Hound grooming is a very time-consuming process. They will require daily brushing to minimize tangles, they'll need baths often (at least every two weeks, if not more often), and depending on the dog's hairstyle, clipping/scissoring is necessary every 2-3 months. Many Afghan owners choose to visit a professional groomer each month to keep their dogs' coats in good shape.
In regards to brushing, it helps to think of an Afghan's hair as almost human. You'll need an oval pin brush, and a slicker brush for working through stubborn tangles or mats. First wet the coat with mist from a spray bottle (or better yet, a nice de-tangling spray), then brush the coat section by section with the pin brush. Use long, sweeping strokes, and brush in the direction of hair growth; brush the legs starting at the top and working downward. Many owners choose to finish with a conditioning spray to give the coat volume and prevent damage.
To bathe an Afghan: first give the dog a thorough brushing, then bathe using high-quality canine shampoo and conditioner (both available at pet stores); rinse well--but it's okay to leave some of the conditioner in. Like human hair, some conditioner left in the dog's coat will add strength and minimize hair breakage. After the bath, dry the coat using a standing hair dryer (or a hand-held one, if no standing dryer is available), making sure to brush the coat as you dry. Once the coat is thoroughly dried, apply some conditioning spray for added protection, then brush the coat yet again.
Regardless of your Afghan's hairstyle, the dog will need a haircut every 8-10 weeks. This breed's fine, luxurious coat is best cut by a professional groomer, who can also provide owners with tips on how to groom an Afghan Hound in general.